The Battle of Castillon puts an end to the Hundred Years’ War: to three centuries of Aquitaine possession by the English crown and thereafter allows the constitution of the kingdom of France.
The Turks' conquest of Constantinople ends the Christian presence in the East and the last Byzantine artists and erudite scholars take refuge in Italy.
Gutenberg's printing invention leads to an unprecedented revolution: culture is accessible to more people and allows ideas and knowledge to spread.
Historians therefore agree to consider this key period as the end of the Middle Ages...
After the defeat of Crecy and the disaster of Poitiers (King John II, byname John the Good, French Jean le Bon was taken prisoner), the French kingdom lost Calais, the Bay of the Somme and Aquitaine.
Beaten at Azincourt, Charles VI had to sign the Treaty of Troyes that made Henry V the sole heir to the kingdom and abandoned Paris and the north of France to the English
After the 1429 sursaut and the Orléans takeover by Joan of Arc, French Jeanne d’Arc, Charles VII gradually regained ground to the west and north
By winning the Battle of Castillon, Charles VII and the “Bureau” brothers overtake Bordeaux and put an end to the Hundred Years’ War.